1. Compared to the real world, models are simple and easy to understand.
  2. Compared to verbal models (which all researchers use), models are clear and transparent and are more likely to generate precise and valid predictions.
  3. Compared to experiments, models can test hypotheses…




The simple observation that most models are oversimplified, approximate, incomplete, and in other ways false gives little reason for using them. Their widespread use suggests that there must be other reasons.

- William Wimsatt¹



Brief Introduction

Less-Brief Introduction


Leo Tiokhin, Karthik Panchanathan, Paul Smaldino, Daniel Lakens

The beauty and the tragedy of the modern world is that it eliminates many situations that require people to demonstrate a commitment to the collective good.

- Sebastian Junger¹



Co-written with Noah van Dongen.

Leo Tiokhin

Postdoc at Eindhoven University of Technology, researching how to make science more efficient and reliable. Metascience | Incentives | Evolutionary Theory.

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